XXX

Professor Hutchisson

English 650

3 December 2002

A Guide to the Study of the Bloomsbury Group

            The term “Bloomsbury” refers to a group of friends who actively participated in the intellectual, literary, and artistic world of London during the early twentieth century. The group’s origins date back to 1904 after the death of Sir Leslie Stephen, when his children Thoby, Adrian, Virginia, and Vanessa began having Thursday night meetings in their home at 46 Gordon Square in the Bloomsbury district of London. Regular attendees of these meetings included some of Thoby’s friends from Cambridge University, such as Clive Bell, Lytton Strachey, Maynard Keynes, Saxon Sydney-Turner, G.E. Moore, and Desmond MacCarthy, along with his wife Molly. These men modeled their Thursday night meetings after the midnight meetings of the elite Cambridge Society, known as the Apostles, to which all of the aforementioned men belonged, with the exception of Adrian Stephen. During those midnight meetings, the men would meet to read and discuss what they had written during the week. Similarly, the meetings at 46 Gordon Square became a forum for intellectual conversation. In 1906, though, shortly after these meetings began, Thoby Stephen died from typhoid fever. The group however, continued to grow and flourish.

            In 1907, Clive Bell and Vanessa Stephen married and continued the residence at 46 Gordon Square, while Virginia and Adrian Stephen moved nearby to 29 Fitzroy Square. During this time, neighbor and friend Duncan Grant, also the cousin of Lytton Strachey, began to associate with this small group, as did other Apostle members, such as the novelist E.M. Forster, the art critic Roger Fry and the social and political writer Leonard Woolf. Roger Fry became involved with the Bloomsbury Group in 1910 after meeting fellow art critic Clive Bell and his wife Vanessa, who shared similar aesthetic views and theories as he did. With their support, he managed to host and form two Post-Impressionists exhibits, the first featuring the work of such artists as Cezanne and Van Gogh, work that strongly influenced the painting of Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. Soon after, Leonard Woolf returned to London after serving in the Ceylon Civil Service for seven years and married Virginia Woolf in 1912.

            The aforementioned individuals comprise the core of the Bloomsbury Group, though there is much debate over who actually belonged, for during the later years of the Group’s existence, they widened their circle and saw several individuals come and go. For the purposes of this guide, which is to provide an introduction to the study of the Bloomsbury Group, the core members are given prominence over those who began associating with the group at a later date, with the exception of Dora Carrington. Though she is not considered to be an original member of the Group, she eventually became very involved with the Group during the time of the First World War, after her and Lytton Strachey moved to Ham Spray together, where they resided until his death in 1932. For this reason, she has been included in this guide, whereas, many others have not. Due to the extensive amount of written material concerned with and produced by the members of the Bloomsbury Group, this guide is not all-inclusive. Rather, it sets forth the objective of providing a starting point for the study of these fascinating individuals known collectively as the Bloomsbury Group, concentrating on the secondary materials concerned with these painters, critics, novelists, biographers, theorists, and economists. Though where possible, this guide provides the reader with references to material that either contains or refers to the primary works of the members of the Group.

Reference Material

            The most recent and comprehensive bibliographic material pertaining to the Bloomsbury Group is Lawrence Markert’s The Bloomsbury Group: A Reference Guide (1), which serves as a good starting point for any study of the Bloomsbury Group. As one of the only two published, it is an annotated guide to commentary on the group, arranged chronologically. Rae Robbins’s The Bloomsbury Group: A Selected Bibliography(2) is the other secondary bibliography that currently exists. Though it is slightly less comprehensive than Markert’s and though Robbins does not provide annotations of the included material, it is arranged in a way that is much more conducive for the study of the individual members of the Group, though as its title suggests, it is selective. The material is organized by member and the members referenced in Robbin’s bibliography include Angelica Bell Garnett, Clive Bell, Julian Bell, Quentin Bell, Vanessa Bell, E.M. Forster, Roger Fry, David Garnett, Duncan Grant, John Maynard Keynes, Desmond MacCarthy, and Molly MacCarthy. In addition to these two reference books, many of the materials included in this guide contain bibliographic lists of their own, some selective, some extensive.

            In A Bloomsbury Iconography (3) Elizabeth P. Richardson provides an index that is helpful in locating the artwork, or images of the artwork produced by the Bloomsbury Group. She also indexes periodicals, books, and catalogues for exhibitions.

Other useful reference sources on the Bloomsbury Group include biographical dictionaries, especially useful considering the incongruity of thought regarding the members of the Group. Alan and Veronica Palmer’s Who’s Who in Bloomsbury (4) alphabetically lists all those involved and associated with the group, including the children of the Group’s founders. In this respect, it is extensive, though the accompanying biographies are rather brief. For a more condensed biographical account of the growth of the Group as a whole, as well as individual biographical accounts of the Group’s members, Volume 10 of the Dictionary of Literary Biography Documentary Series: An Illustrated Chronicle (3) is an excellent source. Editor Edward Bishop devotes the entire volume to the Bloomsbury Group, providing an in-depth account of their history and their achievements with a focus on Leonard and Virginia Woolf, E.M. Forster, Roger Fry, Clive Bell, Vanessa Bell, Duncan Grant, Lytton Strachey, and John Maynard Keynes.

Collections

            Consulting collections of writings both by and about the Bloomsbury Group are a helpful way to acquire a familiarization with the Group and their work without becoming overwhelmed by the enormous amount of material stemming from and directed towards the Group. S.P. Rosenbaum’s A Bloomsbury Group Reader (6) offers a representative selection of short writings by members of the Bloomsbury Group, such as E.M. Forster, Lytton Strachey, Roger Fry, Clive and Vanessa Bell, Desmond MacCarthy, John Maynard Keynes, and Leonard and Virginia Woolf. These writings give the reader a sense of the Group’s vast interests and the scope of their talent, for they are comprised of short stories, biographies, essays that illustrate their aesthetic principles and beliefs, as well as their social and political views, reviews, and memoirs, among other things. In this collection, Rosenbaum also provides a list for further reading, as he does in another collection titled The Bloomsbury Group: A Collection of Memoirs, Commentary, and Criticism (7). This source not only contains memoirs written by members of the Group about the Group, but also contains several essays of criticism and commentary.

The Bloomsbury Group

            After becoming acquainted with the Bloomsbury Group, one might turn to one of the many works devoted to them, works which consider the different aspects of the Group in more detail than the reference books. Bloomsbury (8) by Quentin Bell is both an historical and biographical account of the development of the Group from an insider’s perspective, Quentin being Vanessa Bell’s son. In The Loving Friends: A Portrait of Bloomsbury (10), David Gadd endeavors to present a vivid and realistic account of the Bloomsbury Group, that focuses more so on the individual members and their relations to one another, than on the work they produced. Pamela Todd traces the development of Bloomsbury in this same context in Bloomsbury At Home  (12), drawing heavily on diaries, letters, and memoirs. Throughout Bloomsbury: A House of Lions (9), Leon Edel also traces the Group’s development, though he does so in an attempt to define who and what Bloomsbury was. Regina Marler addresses this issue in Bloomsbury Pie: The Making of the Bloomsbury Boom (11) – a social history that considers the renewed interest in Bloomsbury during the 1960s.

            This interest is evident not only through the enormous amount of commentary that has been written about the Group throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, but also by the number of visitors that travel to the homes where the Group lived and worked. The Charleston house, where much of the Group lived after the First World War, is essentially a piece of artwork in itself and an understanding of the way the Group lived at this residence is an essential facet of understanding their philosophies. Charleston: Past and Present: The Official Guide to One of Bloomsbury’s Cultural Treasures (13) written by Quentin Bell, Angelica Garnett, Henrietta Garnett, and Richard Shone not only describes the actual house and the artwork present throughout the house, but also describes life in the house. In a more recent account of life at Charleston, Quentin Bell collaborated with his daughter Virginia Nicholson on the book Charleston: A Bloomsbury House and Garden (14) in an attempt to capture his childhood memories at Charleston. Both of the above books are wonderfully illustrated.

            For sources emphasizing only the literary history of the Bloomsbury Group, S.P. Rosenbaum, one of the leading scholars in this area of study, provides such an account in several of his works. In 1981, he published a “Preface to a Literary History of the Bloomsbury Group” (18) in the journal New Literary History. This preface is a great introduction to his subsequent works on the subject, for it explains the need for such a history of the Group, emphasizing the interrelatedness of the member’s writings. He continues this study in Victorian Bloomsbury (16), which he published in 1987, and in Edwardian Bloomsbury (17), the second volume of this study, which appeared in 1994. Both volumes trace the early literary history of the Group and pave the way for analytic and comparative interpretations of the Group’s writings. In Aspects of Bloomsbury: Studies in Modern English Literary and Intellectual History (15), he discusses the Group’s writings in relation to their philosophies.

            Due to the impact that the Group’s philosophies and aesthetic principles had on their works, an understanding of their thought is essential to an understanding of their works. J.K. Johnstone’s The Bloomsbury Group: A Study of E.M. Forster, Lytton Strachey, Virginia Woolf, and Their Circle (21) provides a comprehensive overview of the Group’s history and the development of these philosophies and aesthetic principles, though he focuses primarily on the writers, illustrating that the values of the Group make themselves apparent in the composition of Forster, Strachey, and Virginia Woolf. David Dowling presents a similar study in Bloomsbury Aesthetics and the Novels of Forster and Woolf (20). For a study that focuses on the Bloomsbury painters and art critics, Beverly H. Twitchell’s Cezanne and Formalism in Bloomsbury (23) is a good place to start, for she discusses Cezanne’s Formalism, which largely influenced the painters Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant, as well as the art critics, Clive Bell and Roger Fry. Mary Ann Caws and Sarah Bird Wright also discuss the artists, critics, and their philosophies in Bloomsbury and France: Art and Friends (19), arguing that France and its cultural ideas proved to be a huge influence on the Group. Another cultural study that discusses the Group’s development of thought is Peter Stansky’s From William Morris to Sergeant Pepper: Studies in the Radical Domestic (22), which addresses the way that the Bloomsbury Group copes with change in the larger context of British society. Linda Hutcheon more specifically addresses the Group’s views on the moral code of British society and their desire to move beyond this code in her essay “Revolt and the Ideal in Bloomsbury” (24).

            The Bloomsbury Group’s views on British culture and society and their desire to free themselves from social constraints heavily impacted the development of Modernism and the Group’s relation and reaction to this movement. In On or About December 1910: Early Bloomsbury and Its Intimate World (27), Peter Stansky argues that 1910 saw the emergence of Modernism with the Post-Impressionism exhibit arranged by Roger Fry. Ann Banfield discusses how Modernist thought informed both the art and literature of the Bloomsbury members in The Phantom Table: Woolf, Fry, Russell, and the Epistemology of Modernism (25), while Ulysses D’Aquila offers a more general account of this subject in Bloomsbury and Modernism (26).

            For a study of Modernism in relation to the painters and critics of Bloomsbury, Richard Shone’s The Art of Bloomsbury: Roger Fry, Vanessa Bell, and Duncan Grant (32) is a good source to consult, containing images of the art produced during the Bloomsbury years and also a discussion of Roger Fry’s and Clive Bell’s attempts to define Modernism in the 1920s. Bloomsbury: Its Artists, Authors, and Designers (31) by Gillian Naylor and The Bloomsbury Artists: Prints and Book Design (29) by Tony Bradshaw both discuss the artists and their works, while providing several images and prints of the artwork. Michael Holroyd offers a similar, but less comprehensive assessment of the Bloomsbury artists and the artwork they produced in “Rediscovery: The Bloomsbury Painters” (33). It is nearly impossible though, to discuss the Bloomsbury artists, without discussing the Omega Workshops, which proved to be an essential element of their development as artists. Judith Collins traces the rise and fall of these workshops from 1910-1919 in The Omega Workshops (30), which contains a number of plates, while Isabelle Anscombe discusses this same subject in Omega and After: Bloomsbury and the Decorative Arts (28), though she also includes a discussion of the influence these workshops had on artwork produced by the Group in subsequent years.

            Another area of study that is steadily growing more popular is the study of the Bloomsbury women. In 1984, an article titled “Bloomsbury Women” appeared in the Encounter (37). In 1990, Mary Ann Caws produced Women of Bloomsbury: Virginia, Vanessa, and Carrington (34), which discusses in detail the lives of those three women and their relations to one another. Jan Marsh’s 1995 Bloomsbury Women: Distinct Figures in Life and Art (36) is more encompassing, for she discusses some of the less prominent figures associated with the Group, such as Vita Sackville-West, Lydia Lopokova, and Katherine Mansfield, as well as Virginia, Vanessa, and Carrington. Women in the Milieu of Leonard and Virginia Woolf: Peace, Politics, and Education (35) is a collection of essays that appeared in 1998. These essays discuss the impact of the Woolfs’ vision on other British women writers, illustrating the influential thought of the Bloomsbury Group that makes them worthy of study.

            That they are worthy of study is evident by the enormous amount of critical essays and articles that exists on the Bloomsbury Group, in addition to the aforementioned works on the Group. Noel Annon discusses the Group’s regard for themselves in “The Intellectual Aristocracy” (38) and how this regard surfaces in the style of their writings. Similarly, in an essay simply titled “The Bloomsbury Group” (40), Carolyn Heilbrun attempts to define their morals and principles, especially those relating to androgyny, and illustrates how their writings reflect their way of thinking. Barbara Fassler discusses this same subject in “Theories of Homosexuality as Sources of Bloomsbury’s Androgyny” (49).

In addition to criticism that discusses the Group’s works, there is a large amount of criticism that discusses Bloomsbury in a cultural context. Geoffrey Moore’s “The Significance of Bloomsbury” (57) and Mary Butts’s “Bloomsbury” (45), for example, offer an assessment of the Group’s cultural significance. Jane Garrity focuses on the representation of Bloomsbury’s appearance in society in “Selling Culture to the ‘Civilized’: Bloomsbury, British Vogue, and the Marketing of National Identity” (50). Following a similar vein, Robert Rubens’s “Lecturing in Spain on the Bloomsbury Group” (59) comments on the Group’s popularity outside of England. Todd P. Avery’s “Ethics Replace Morality: The Victorian Legacy to Bloomsbury” (43) discusses the role that Victorian culture played in the formation of the Bloomsbury Group. In the essay, “Bloomsbury: Bertrand Russell, Roger Fry and Clive Bell, Lytton Strachey, Virginia Woolf” (41), which appeared in The Georgian Literary Scene in 1934, Frank Swinnerton comments on the Group’s reaction to current events, while Patrick Brantlinger examines the Group’s response to war and imperialism in “ ‘The Bloomsbury Fraction’ Versus War and Empire” (39). Stephen Koch also discusses the Group’s relation to war in an article that appeared in the Partisan Review titled “Bloomsbury and Espionage” (54), as does Quentin Bell in Bloomsbury and ‘the Vulgar Passions’ ” (44). 

While referencing the cultural significance of the Group, several scholars discuss how the Group’s delight in new ways of thought appears in their art and in their writings, such as Peter Knox-Shaw in “Bloomsbury and Literature” (53) and Mary Devereaux in “More Than ‘Meets the Eye’ ” (47). On a lighter note, Robert Poole’s essay “Bloomsbury and Bicycles” provides commentary on the Group’s fetish with bicycles, which he claims manifested itself in their art and literature. Diane Gillespie in “Blake and Bloomsbury: Mental Warfare” (51) argues that Bloomsbury’s interest in Blake helped to define their own aesthetic theories and practices, while David Garnett considers D.H. Lawrence’s relation to Bloomsbury in “Lawrence and ‘Bloomsbury’: The Friendship with David Garnett” (52). In “Intuition in Bloomsbury,” (55) Berel Lang posits that the concepts of intuition applied by Moore, Keynes, and Fry are linked to each other both structurally and historically. In “The Hogarth Letters: Bloomsbury Writers on Art and Politics” (56), Selma Meyerowitz addresses how the Bloomsbury Group used The Hogarth Letters, a volume produced by the Hogarth Press, as an outlet to express their views on the role of art and literature in society, as well as their social, economic, and political concerns. Because the diaries kept by members of the Group often contain expressions of thought on these same issues, Kathleen Chase questions whether diaries should be considered literature in “Legend and Legacy: Some Bloomsbury Diaries” (46).

            Two articles, which appeared in London and New York papers, are also worth consulting. “The Air of Bloomsbury” (42) appeared in The Times Literary Supplement in 1954 and specifically comments on John Keith Johnstone’s study of Bloomsbury and relies on its information to discuss the members of Bloomsbury, their philosophies and aesthetics, as well as their revolt against tradition. Interestingly enough, Clive Bell did not agree with much of the information put forth in this article and wrote a letter to the editor in response to this article, which appeared in the TLS a week later. Irvin Ehrenpreis’s article “Bloomsbury Variations” appeared in a 1975 edition of The New York Review of Books. Though he refers to several works written on the Bloomsbury Group, he does not discuss any of them in length, and instead seems to offer his own account of the Group. The intrigue of this article stems from the desire to read commentary on the Group that appeared in the public realm.

The Members of the Bloomsbury Group

            In addition to the voluminous amount of material that addresses the Bloomsbury Group as a whole, there are several other works devoted to the individual members of the Bloomsbury Group. For the purposes of this guide, only pertinent information that discusses these individuals in relation to the Group have been referenced, though where possible, references to materials that contain suggestions for further readings on these individuals have also been included.

            For information concerning Lytton Strachey, Martin Kallich’s “Lytton Strachey: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings About Him” (60) is a good place to start, as is “Lytton Strachey: Cambridge and Bloomsbury” (62) by Vincent Shean, which discusses the role Strachey played in the formation of the Bloomsbury Group. Notable critical work that discusses Strachey and his writings include Charles Richard Sanders’s “Lytton Strachey’s Conception of Biography” (63) and Michael Holroyd’s Lytton Strachey and the Bloomsbury Group: His Work, Their Influence (61). The latter source contains an excellent bibliography that directs the reader not only to the primary works of Strachey, but also to critical commentary on both him and the Group.

            To become familiar with John Maynard Keynes’s writings, one might consult The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes (64), which is a massive 30 volume collection of his work, including essays, theories, and social, political, and literary writings, among other things. Roy Forbes Harrod’s biography The Life of John Maynard Keynes (65) discusses the environment and factors which led to the production of his writings and is very helpful, for it provides us with a better understanding of the man’s work, though D.E. Moggridge’s Maynard Keynes: An Economist’s Biography (66) offers a biographical account that is largely focused on Keyne’s involvement with the Bloomsbury Group. For more information on his involvement with the Group, see Paul Levy’s essay “The Bloomsbury Group”(69) or Derek Crabtree and A.P. Thirlwall’s Keynes and the Bloomsbury Group, which also addresses the social and cultural significance of the Group as well. In the essay “Maynard Keynes as a Biographer” (68), David Garnett discusses Keynes in that respect, while Piero Mini’s Keynes, Bloomsbury, and ‘The General Theory’ ” (70) is a study of the ideas of Keynes and how Bloomsbury shaped and fostered his values and philosophies.

            Leonard Woolf, like Keynes, also proved to be a prolific writer, though his writings are primarily social and political. For an account of his life and his involvement with the Bloomsbury Group, his 4 volume autobiography spanning the years 1880-1969 (71-74) is a good source to consult. So is J.H. Willis’s Leonard and Virginia Woolf as Publishers: The Hogarth Press, 1917-41 (79), which focuses on their development of the Hogarth Press – a major event in Bloomsbury history. For those interested in Woolf’s primary writings, as well as the secondary material written in reference to these writings, Leila Luedeking and Michael Edmonds have compiled Leonard Woolf: A Bibliography (75). Natania Rosenfeld provides a study of Woolf’s social and political views in Outsiders Together: Virginia and Leonard Woolf (76), while Anindyo Roy’s critical article “ ‘Telling Brutal Things’: Colonialism, Bloomsbury and the Crisis of Narration in Leonard Woolf’s ‘A Tale Told By Moonlight’ ” (77) discusses the appearance of these views in his writings. The collection of Leonard’s correspondence compiled by Frederic Spotts also sheds light on his personal views and his relations to other members of the Bloomsbury Group.

            Leonard’s wife, the writer and novelist Virginia Woolf, is a well-known figure who has attracted an enormous amount of critical attention. Because there is so much material written by and about her, consulting both a primary and secondary bibliography would be useful for those who wish to consider her beyond the context of Bloomsbury. B.J. Patrick’s A Bibliography of Virginia Woolf (81) lists Virginia’s writings, while both Maurice Beebe’s “Criticism to Virginia Woolf: A Selected Checklist With An Index to Studies of Separate Works” (82) and Robin Majumdar’s Virginia Woolf: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism (83) provide lists of much of the criticism written about her and her works. In addition to the many reference works on Virginia and her work, several scholars have written biographical accounts of her, such as Quentin Bell’s Virginia Woolf: A Biography (84), which is comprised of two volumes, while Virginia Woolf and Bloomsbury: A Centenary Celebration (85) is a collection of essays that refers to Virginia and her relation with Bloomsbury in a biographical manner. Critical works on Virginia that discuss her in a manner that relates her to the Bloomsbury Group include Jaakko Hintikka’s “Virginia Woolf and Our Knowledge of the External World” (86), which discusses the epistemological ideas of the Group and the appearance of these ideas in her novels, and Christopher Reed’s “Through Formalism: Feminism and Virginia Woolf’s Relation to Bloomsbury Aesthetics” (90), which discusses the aesthetic doctrines of Formalism and their effect on Virginia’s writings. Among other notable critical articles are Lorraine Janzen Kooistra’s “Virginia Woolf’s Roger Fry: A Bloomsbury Memorial” (87), Marina MacKay’s “Mr. Wilson and Mrs. Woolf: A Camp Reconstruction of Bloomsbury” (88), and Andrew McNeillie’s essay “Bloomsbury” (89), which appears in The Cambridge Companion to Virginia Woolf. For those interested in Virginia’s correspondence, Nigel Nicholson has edited a six volume collection of The Letters of Virginia Woolf (91). Also containing material written by Virginia, such as excerpts from letters and manuscripts is Frances O. Mattson’s Virginia Woolf and Her Circle: Leonard Woolf, Clive Bell, Vita Sackville-West, Vanessa Bell, Lytton Strachey, E.M. Forster, Rupert Brooke (86), which is primarily a checklist that was produced for an exhibition at the New York Public Library that ran from October 15, 1993 to April 9, 1994.

            Virginia’s sister Vanessa is also an interesting figure, well known for her paintings. Frances Spalding offers a biographical account of Vanessa in Vanessa Bell (93), arguing that she was the central force of the Bloomsbury Group. As an artist, she participated in the famous Omega Workshops – workshops which greatly influenced the way of life at Charleston. In “Painting Charleston” (95), Jill Johnstone discusses her artwork that she did on the house Charleston. Diane Gillespie also discusses her artwork in The Sisters’ Arts: The Writing and Painting of Virginia Woolf (94), though she does so in a broader sense, paying particular attention to the responses of the sisters to each other’s works. For a more intimate account of such topics, the Selected Letters of Vanessa Bell (96) contains correspondence that asserts Vanessa’s own views of her relation to the Group and other individuals associated with the Group.

            The art critic Clive Bell, Vanessa’s husband, is another figure that played an essential role in the founding of Bloomsbury. The New Cambridge Bibliography of English (97) provides a selective list of his writing and the criticism written about him. One particularly notable source of criticism is William Bywater’s Clive Bell’s Eye (98), which discusses Bell’s work on aesthetics, his view of criticism, and his movement toward Formalism, while also including some articles written by Bell.

            For information on the painter Duncan Grant and his relationship to the Bloomsbury Group, one should consult Douglas Blair Turnbaugh’s largely biographical account, Duncan Grant and the Bloomsbury Group (99). This book traces his development as an artist and contains a number of prints designed by Grant, as well as photographs of some of the decorative artwork from the Omega Workshops. Clive Bell discusses this artwork, where and when it appeared, Grant’s sensibility, and the characteristics of his style in an essay titled “Duncan Grant” within the book Since Cezanne (100).

            The philosopher G.E. Moore’s thoughts permeated the Bloomsbury Group and greatly influenced the other members. Tom Regan discusses this in Bloomsbury’s Prophet: G.E. Moore and the Development of His Moral Philosophy (102). Paul Levy also discusses Moore’s influence on the Group in G.E. Moore and the Cambridge Apostles (101), although he focuses on the development of the Group and their ideas, along with Moore’s relations with the other members. For a more comprehensive study of Moore’s philosophic ideas, The Philosophy of G.E. Moore (103) is a good source, containing autobiographical writings by Moore, as well as criticism on him. This source also contains a bibliography that lists works written by Moore, as does Alan White’s G.E. Moore: A Critical Exposition (104).

            Art critic Roger Fry played a crucial role in the development of the Group’s aesthetic principles and is the originator of the Omega Workshops. A selected bibliography of his criticism and theories, as well as criticism on him is found in The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (105). Frances Spalding has produced a biography of Fry titled Roger Fry: Art and Life (106), which speaks largely of his relation to the Bloomsbury Group. Quentin Bell provides a more in-depth account of this relation in Vision and Design: The Life, Work, and Influence of Roger Fry (107). For criticism on Roger Fry’s own critical work, consult The Interpretation of Art: Essays on the Art Criticism of John Ruskin, Walter Pater, Clive Bell, Roger Fry, and Herbert Read (108). Denys Sutton has published a two volume collection of Fry’s correspondence, Letters of Roger Fry (109).

            Adrian Stephen, along with Desmond and Molly MacCarthy, were among some of the original members of the Bloomsbury Group who gathered at 49 Gordon Square in the early days of the Group’s existence. In 1997, Jean MacGibbon published There’s the Lighthouse: A Biography of Adrian Stephen (110), which traces his role in the development of the Group. Hugh and Mirabel Cecil discuss the relationship of the journalist Desmond and his wife Molly in Clever Hearts: Desmond and Molly MacCarthy: A Biography (111). Molly, like her husband, also wrote and is given credit for coining the term “Bloomsberries” to describe the Members of the Group. Avery Todd’s Close and Affectionate Friends: Desmond and Molly MacCarthy and the Bloomsbury Group (112) focuses on the couple’s involvement with the Group, though it is largely biographical. In Desmond MacCarthy: The Man and His Writings (113), David Cecil provides a critical account of Desmond’s writings.

            Writer and novelist E.M. Forster is another figure, who like Virginia Woolf, has attracted a considerable amount of attention. Consulting Claude Summers’s E.M. Forster: A Guide to Research (114) is a helpful starting point, for this guide provides both a primary and secondary bibliography for Forster. Phillip Nicholson Furbank’s biography of Forster, E.M. Forster: A Life (115), is another good source to consult, offering readers a comprehensive account of this man’s life. P. Wilkinson presents a portrait of Forster’s relationship with the Bloomsbury Group in “Forster and Bloomsbury” (116).

            The figure Dora Carrington is referred to in several sources focusing on the art produced by the Group and also in several of the sources that primarily discuss the women of the Group. Gretchen Gerzina’s Carrington: A Life (117) is a biography that, among other things, traces Carrington’s involvement with the Bloomsbury Group, the development of her artwork, and also her relationship with Lytton Strachey.

Memoirs

            A number of memoirs written by members of the Bloomsbury Group and those associated with it provide us with deeper insight into the lives of these individuals, who comment on how their involvement with the Group have impacted their lives. Many of Vanessa Bell’s memoirs are found in Sketches in Pen and Ink (120), while her son’s memories of growing up in such an environment are found in Bloomsbury Recalled (119). Angelica Garnett, another Bloomsbury child, discusses her own memories growing up in the midst of the Group in Deceived With Kindness: A Bloomsbury Childhood (121), while friend and Bloomsbury associate Frances Partridge recalls her own Bloomsbury memories in Love in Bloomsbury: Memories (124). For collections of recollections and memories, one might consult A Cezanne in the Hedge: and Other Memories of Charleston and Bloomsbury  (122) or Alen MacWeeney and Sue Allison’s Bloomsbury Reflections (123). Wiflred Stone provides excerpts from interviews and memoirs of the different individuals in “Some Bloomsbury Interviews and Memories” (125) though this source presents more of a survey of these thoughts, than comprehensive and detailed ones.

Online Resources

            In addition to the vast amount of written material on the Bloomsbury Group, there are also a number of reputable websites devoted to them. The Knitting Circle (127) is one site that offers a useful bibliography listing recent news, periodicals, and reviews directed toward the Group. “Web Resources for ENGL 395: The Bloomsbury Group” (130) is a site created for an undergraduate study of the Group at the College of Charleston, though it is one of the more resourceful sites for information on the Group, providing links to numerous other sites that deal both with the Group as a whole and with the individual members. This site also includes a page containing images of some of the artwork produced by the Group as does Pat Gately’s site Bloomsbury Images (129). The site “Charleston, the Home of Vanessa Bell, Duncan Grant, and the Bloomsbury Group” contains quite a bit of information on this house and the Bloomsbury Group, including visitation information.

            These studies on the Bloomsbury Group illustrate the enormous impact their thoughts and views had on society, such as the concept of Modernism and G.E. Moore’s economic theory. Partly because of the Group’s own vast array of pursuits, interest in the Bloomsbury Group and their work is still strong. Several colleges currently offer courses devoted to the study of the Group, while scholars continue to produce biographies, histories, and critical studies of the Group. For these reasons, Bloomsbury and its members are a historical facet of British culture worth studying.

Enumerative Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHIES

1.      Markert, Lawrence W. The Bloomsbury Group: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K.

Hall, 1990.

2.      Robbins, Rae Gallant. The Bloomsbury Group: A Selective Bibliography. Kenmore:

Price, 1978.

 

 

 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES

3.      Bishop, Edward L., ed. Dictionary of Literary Biography Documentary Series: An Illustrated Chronicle. Vol. 10. Detroit: Gale, 1992.

 

4.      Palmer, Alan and Veronica. Who’s Who in Bloomsbury. New York: St. Martin’s P,

1987.

 

 

 

INDEXES

 

5.      Richardson, Elizabeth P. A Bloomsbury Iconography. Winchester, St. Paul’s

Bibliographies, 1989.

 

 

 

COLLECTION OF WRITINGS BY THE BLOOMSBURY GROUP

 

6.      Rosenbaum, S.P., ed. A Bloomsbury Group Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

 

 

 

COLLECTION OF WRITING ABOUT THE BLOOMSBURY GROUP

 

7.      Rosenbaum, S.P., ed. The Bloomsbury Group: A Collection of Memoirs,

Commentary, and Criticism. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1975.

 

 

 

WORKS ON THE BLOOMSBURY GROUP

 

Historical and Biographical Accounts of the Group

 

8.      Bell, Quentin. Bloomsbury. New York: Basic, 1968.

 

9.      Edel, Leon. Bloomsbury: A House of Lions. New York: J.B. Lippincott, 1979.

 

10.  Gadd, David. The Loving Friends: A Portrait of Bloomsbury. New York: Harcourt,

1974.

 

11.  Marler, Regina. Bloomsbury Pie: The Making of the Bloomsbury Boom. New York:

Henry Holt, 1997.

 

12.  Todd, Pamela. Bloomsbury At Home. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999.

 

 

 The Bloomsbury Group at Charleston

 

13.  Bell, Quentin, Angelica Garnett, Henrietta Garnett, and Richard Shone. Charleston:

Past and Present: The Official Guide to One of Bloomsbury’s Cultural Treasures.

New York: Harcourt, 1987.

 

14.  Bell, Quentin and Virginia Nicholson. Charleston: A Bloomsbury House and Garden.

New York: Henry Holt, 1997.

 

 

Literary History of the Bloomsbury Group

 

15.  Rosenbaum, S.P. Aspects of Bloomsbury: Studies in Modern English Literary and

Intellectual History. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1998.

 

16.  Rosenbaum, S.P. Victorian Bloomsbury: The Early Literary History of the

Bloomsbury Group. Vol. 1. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1987.

 

17.  Rosenbaum, S.P. Edwardian Bloomsbury: The Early Literary History of the

Bloomsbury Group. Vol. 2. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1994.

 

18.  Rosenbaum, S.P. “Preface to a Literary History of the Bloomsbury Group.” New

Literary History: A Journal of Theory and Interpretation 12.2 (1981): 329-344.

 

 

Their Philosophies and Aesthetic Principles

 

19.  Caws, Mary Ann and Sarah Bird Wright. Bloomsbury and France: Art and Friends.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.

 

20.  Dowling, David. Bloomsbury Aesthetics and the Novels of Forster and Woolf. New

York: St. Martin’s P, 1985.

 

21.  Hutcheon, Linda. “Revolt and the Ideal in Bloomsbury.” English Studies in Canada 1

(1979): 78-93.

 

22.  Johnstone, J.K. The Bloomsbury Group: A Study of E.M. Forster, Lytton Strachey,

Virginia Woolf, and Their Circle. New York: Noonday P, 1963.

 

23.  Stansky, Peter. From William Morris to Sergeant Pepper: Studies in the Radical

Domestic. Palo Alto: Society for the Promotion of Science and Scholarship, 1999.

 

24.  Twitchell, Beverly H. Cezanne and Formalism in Bloomsbury. Ann Arbor:

UMI Research P, 1987.

 

 

The Bloomsbury Group and Modernism

 

25.  Banfield, Ann. The Phantom Table: Woolf, Fry, Russell, and the Epistemology of

Modernism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.

 

26.  D’Aquila, Ulysses L. Bloomsbury and Modernism. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.

 

27.  Stansky, Peter. On or About December 1910: Early Bloomsbury and Its Intimate

World. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996.

 

 

The Bloomsbury Artists

 

28.  Anscombe, Isabelle. Omega and After: Bloomsbury and the Decorative Arts. New

York: Thames and Hudson, 1981.

 

29.  Bradshaw, Tony. The Bloomsbury Artists: Prints and Book Design. Burlington:

Ashgate, 2000.

 

30.  Collins, Judith. The Omega Workshops. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1984.

 

31.  Holroyd, Michael. “Rediscovery: The Bloomsbury Painters.” Art in America 58 (July

1970): 116-123.

 

32.   Naylor, Gillian. Bloomsbury: Its Artists, Authors, and Designers. Boston: Little,

Brown and Company, 1990.

 

33.  Shone, Richard with essays by James Beechey and Richard Morphet. The Art of

Bloomsbury: Roger Fry, Vanessa Bell, and Duncan Grant. Princeton: Princeton

UP, 1999.

 

 

The Women of the Bloomsbury Group

 

34.  “Bloomsbury Women.” Encounter 62 (Feb. 1984): 40-43.

 

35.  Caws, Mary Ann. Women of Bloomsbury: Virginia, Vanessa, and Carrington. New

York: Routledge, 1990.

 

36.  Chapman, Wayne K. and Janet M. Manson. Women in the Milieu of Leonard and

Virginia Woolf: Peace, Politics, and Education. New York: Pace UP, 1998.

 

37.  Marsh, Jan. Bloomsbury Women: Distinct Figures in Life and Art. New York: Henry

Holt, 1995.

 

 

Criticism on the Bloomsbury Group

 

Essays Within Books

 

38.  Annon, Noel. “The Intellectual Aristocracy.” Studies in Social History. Ed. J.H.

Plumb. Freeport: Books for Libraries P, 1969. 243-287.

 

39.  Brantlinger, Patrick. “ ‘The Bloomsbury Fraction’ Versus War and Empire.” Seeing

Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature. Ed. Carola M. Kaplan

and Anne B. Simpson. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1996. 149-170.

 

40.  Heilbrun, Carolyn G. “The Bloomsbury Group.” Toward a Recognition of

Androgyny. New York: Knopf, 1973. 113-167.

 

41.  Swinnerton, Frank. “Bloomsbury: Bertrand Russell, Roger Fry and Clive Bell, Lytton

Strachey, Virginia Woolf.” The Georgian Literary Scene. New York: Hutchinson,

1934. 265-294.

 

Articles 

 

42.  “The Air of Bloomsbury.” Times Literary Supplement. 20 August 1954. 521-3; letter

from Clive Bell, 27 August 1954. 543.

 

43.  Avery, Todd P. “Ethics Replace Morality: The Victorian Legacy to Bloomsbury.”

English Literature in Transition 41.3 (1998): 294-316.

 

44.  Bell, Quentin. “Bloomsbury and ‘the Vulgar Passions.’ ” Critical Inquiry 6 (1979):

239-256.

 

45.  Butts, Mary. “Bloomsbury.” Modernism / Modernity 5.2 (1998): 31-45.

 

46.  Chase, Kathleen. “Legend and Legacy: Some Bloomsbury Diaries.” World Literature

Today: A Literary Quarterly of the University of Oklahoma 61.2 (1987): 230-233.

 

47.  Devereaux, Mary. “”More Than ‘Meets the Eye.’ ” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art

Criticism 43.2 (1984): 159-169.

 

48.  Ehrenpreis, Irvin. “Bloomsbury Variations.” The New York Review of Books 17 April

1975: 9-12.

 

49.  Fassler, Barbara. “Theories of Homosexuality as Sources of Bloomsbury’s

Androgyny.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5 (1979): 237-251.

 

50.  Garrity, Jane. “Selling Culture to the ‘Civilized’: Bloomsbury, British Vogue, and the

Marketing of National Identity.” Modernism / Modernity 6.2 (1999): 29-58.

 

51.  Gillespie, Diane F. “Blake and Bloomsbury: Mental Warfare.” English Literature in

Transition 33.1 (1990): 5-28. 

 

52.  Ingersoll, Earl G. “Lawrence and ‘Bloomsbury’: The Friendship with David Garnett.”

D.H. Lawrence Review 26.1 (1996): 7-34.

 

53.  Knox-Shaw, Peter. “Bloomsbury and Literature.” Unisa English Studies 26.1 (1988):

14-21.

 

54.  Koch, Stephen. “Bloomsbury and Espionage.” Partisan Review 61.1 (1994): 23-45.

 

55.  Lang, Berel. “Intuition in Bloomsbury.” Journal of the History of Ideas 25.2 (1964):

295-302.

 

56.  Meyerowitz, Selma. “The Hogarth Letters: Bloomsbury Writers on Art and Politics.”

San Jose Studies 5.1 (1979): 76-85.

 

57.  Moore, Geoffrey. “The Significance of Bloomsbury.” The Kenyon Review 17 (Winter

1955): 119-129.

 

58.  Poole, Robert. “Bloomsbury and Bicycles.” ELH 56.4 (1989): 951-966.

 

59.  Rubens, Robert. “Lecturing in Spain on the Bloomsbury Group.” Contemporary

Review 257 (1990): 153-55.

 

 

 

THE MEMBERS OF THE BLOOMSBURY GROUP

 

LYTTON STRACHEY

 

Bibliography

 

60.  Kallich, Martin. “Lytton Strachey: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings About

Him.” English Literature in Transition 5 (1962): 1-77.

 

Criticism

 

61.  Holroyd, Michael. Lytton Strachey and the Bloomsbury Group: His Work, Their

Influence. Baltimore: Penguin, 1971.

 

62.  Sheean, Vincent. “Lytton Strachey: Cambridge and Bloomsbury.” The New Republic

LXX (17 Feb. 1932): 19-20.

 

63.  Sanders, Charles Richard. “Lytton Strachey’s Conception of Biography.” PMLA 66.4

(1951): 295-315.

 

 

JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES

 

Collection of Keyne’s Writings

 

64.  The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes. 30 vols. New York: MacMillan, 1971-1989.

 

Biography

 

65.  Harrod, Roy Forbes. The Life of John Maynard Keynes. New York: St. Martin’s P,

1966.

 

Criticism

 

66.  Crabtree, Derek and A.P. Thirlwall, eds. Keynes and the Bloomsbury Group. 4th

Annual Keynes Seminar 1978. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980.

 

67.  Garnett, David. “Maynard Keynes as a Biographer.” Essays on John Maynard

Keynes. Ed. Milo Keynes. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975. 254-259.

 

68.  Levy, Paul. “The Bloomsbury Group.” Essays on John Maynard Keynes. Ed. Milo

Keynes. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975. 60-72.

 

69.  Mini, Piero V. Keynes, Bloomsbury, and ‘The General Theory.’ New York: St.

Martin’s P, 1991.

 

70.  Moggridge, D.E. Maynard Keynes: An Economist’s Biography. New York:

Routledge, 1992.

 

 

LEONARD WOOLF

 

Autobiographies

 

71.  Woolf, Leonard. Sowing: An Autobiography of the Years 1880-1904. New York:

Harcourt, 1975.

 

72.  Woolf, Leonard. Growing: An Autobiography of the Years 1904-1911. New York:

Harcourt, 1975.

 

73.  Woolf, Leonard. Beginning Again: An Autobiography of the Years 1911-1918. New

York: Harcourt, 1964.

 

74.  Woolf, Leonard. Downhill All the Way: An Autobiography of the Years 1919-1969.

London: Hogarth P, 1967.

 

Bibliography

 

75.  Luedeking, Leila and Michael Edmonds. Leonard Woolf: A Bibliography. United

Kingdom: St. Paul’s Bibliographies, 1992.

 

Criticism

 

76.  Rosenfeld, Natania. Outsiders Together: Virginia and Leonard Woolf. Princeton:

Princeton UP, 2000.

 

77.  Roy, Anindyo. “ ‘Telling Brutal Things’: Colonialism, Bloomsbury and the Crisis of

Narration in Leonard Woolf’s ‘A Tale Told By Moonlight.’ ” Criticism: A

Quarterly for Literature and the Arts 43.2 (2001): 189-210.

 

78.  Spender, Stephen. “The Perfectly Candid Man.” The New York Review 23 April 1970.

24-30.

 

79.  Willis, J.H. Leonard and Virginia Woolf as Publishers: The Hogarth Press, 1917-41.

Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1992.

 

Correspondence

 

80.  Spotts, Frederic, ed. Letters of Leonard Woolf. San Diego: Harcourt, 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 


VIRGINIA WOOLF

 

Primary Bibliography

 

81.  Kirkpatrick, B.J. A Bibliography of Virginia Woolf. New York: Oxford UP, 1980.

 

Secondary Bibliography

 

82.  Beebe, Maurice. “Criticism to Virginia Woolf: A Selected Checklist With An Index

to Studies of Separate Works.” Modern Fiction Studies 2.1 (1956): 36-45.

 

83.  Majumdar, Robin. Virginia Woolf: An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism. New

York: Garland, 1976.

 

Biography

 

84.  Bell, Quentin. Virginia Woolf: A Biography. 2 vols. New York: Harcourt, 1972.

 

85.  Marcus, Jane, ed. Virginia Woolf and Bloomsbury: A Centenary Celebration.

Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987.

 

86.  Mattson, Frances O. Virginia Woolf and Her Circle: Leonard Woolf, Clive Bell, Vita

Sackville-West, Vanessa Bell, Lytton Strachey, E.M. Forster, Rupert Brooke. New

York: New York Public Library, 1993.

 

Criticism

 

87.  Hintikka, Jaakko. “Virginia Woolf and Our Knowledge of the External World.” The

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 38.1 (1979): 5-14.

 

88.  Kooistra, Lorraine Janzen. “Virginia Woolf’s Roger Fry: A Bloomsbury Memorial.”

Woolf Studies Annual 2 (1996): 26-38.

 

89.  MacKay, Marina. “Mr. Wilson and Mrs. Woolf: A Camp Reconstruction of

Bloomsbury.” Journal of Modern Literature 23.1 (1999): 95-109.

 

90.  McNeillie, Andrew. “Bloomsbury.” The Cambridge Companion to Virginia Woolf.

Ed. Sue Roe and Susan Sellers. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000. 1-28.

 

91.  Reed, Christopher. “Through Formalism: Feminism and Virginia Woolf’s Relation to

Bloomsbury Aesthetics.” Twentieth Century Literature: A Scholarly and Critical

Journal 38.1 (1992): 20-43.

 

 

Correspondence

 

92.  Nicolson, Nigel. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. 6 vols. New York: Harcourt, 1975.

 

 

VANESSA BELL

 

Biography

 

93.  Spalding, Frances. Vanessa Bell. New Haven: Ticknor and Fields, 1983.

 

Criticism

 

94.  Gillespie, Diane F. The Sisters’ Arts: The Writing and Painting of Virginia Woolf

and Vanessa Bell. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1988.

 

95.  Johnston, Jill. “Painting Charleston.” Painting Charleston 77 (December 1989):

152-163.

 

Correspondence

 

96.  Marler, Regina, ed. Selected Letters of Vanessa Bell. New York: Pantheon, 1993.

 

 

CLIVE BELL

 

Bibliography

 

97.  “Arthur Clive Howard Bell.” The New Cambridge Bibliography of English

Literature. Ed. I.R. Willison. Vol. IV: 1900-1950. Cambridge: Cambridge

UP, 1972. 1003-1004.

 

Criticism

 

98.  Bywater, William G. Clive Bell’s Eye. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1975.

 

 

DUNCAN GRANT

 

Biographical Work

 

99.  Turnbaugh, Douglas Blair. Duncan Grant and the Bloomsbury Group. Secaucus,

New Jersey: Lyle Stuart, 1987.

 

 

Criticism

 

100.          Bell, Clive. “Duncan Grant.” Since Cezanne. Freeport: Books for Libraries P,

1992.105-112.

 

 

G.E. MOORE

 

Criticism

 

101.          Levy, Paul. G.E. Moore and the Cambridge Apostles. New York: Holt, Rinehart,

 and Winston, 1980.

 

102.          Regan, Tom. Bloomsbury’s Prophet: G.E. Moore and the Development of His

Moral Philosophy. Philadelphia, Temple UP, 1986.

 

103.          Schilpp, Paul A., ed. The Philosophy of G.E. Moore. 3rd ed. La Salle: Open Court,

1968.

 

104.          White, Alan R. G.E. Moore: A Critical Exposition. New York: Humanities P,

1969.

 

Correspondence

 

105.          Garnett, David, ed. Carrington: Letters and Extracts from Her Diaries. New

York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970.

 

 

ROGER FRY

 

Bibliography

 

106.          “Roger Eliot Fry.” The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature. Ed.

I.R. Willison. Vol. IV: 1900-1950. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1972.

1042-1044.

 

Biography

 

107.          Spalding, Frances. Roger Fry: Art and Life. Berkeley: U of California P, 1980.

 

Criticism

 

108.          Bell, Quentin. Vision and Design: The Life, Work, and Influence of Roger Fry.

Nottingham: U of Nottingham, 1966.

 

109.          Fishman, Solomon, ed. The Interpretation of Art: Essays on the Art Criticism of

John Ruskin, Walter Pater, Clive Bell, Roger Fry, and Herbert Read.

Berkeley: U of California P, 1963.

 

Correspondence

 

110.          Sutton, Denys, ed. Letters of Roger Fry. 2 vols. London: Chatto and Windus,

1972.

 

 

ADRIAN STEPHEN

 

Biography

 

111.          MacGibbon, Jean. There’s the Lighthouse: A Biography of Adrian Stephen.

London: James & James, 1997.

 

 

DESMOND AND MOLLY MACCARTHY

 

Biography

 

112.          Cecil, Hugh and Mirabel Cecil. Clever Hearts: Desmond and Molly MacCarthy:

A Biography. London: V. Gollancz, 1990.

 

Criticism

 

113.          Avery, Todd. Close and Affectionate Friends: Desmond and Molly MacCarthy

and the Bloomsbury Group. Bloomington: Indianan U Libraries P, 1999.

 

114.          Cecil, David. Desmond MacCarthy: The Man and His Writings. London:

Constable, 1984.

 

 

E.M. FORSTER

 

Primary and Secondary Bibliography

 

115.          Summers, Claude J. E.M. Forster: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland,

1991.

 

Biography

 

116.          Furbank, Phillip Nicholas. E.M. Forster: A Life. New York: Harcourt, 1978.

 

 

Criticism

 

117.          Wilkinson, P. “Forster and Bloomsbury.” Aspects of E.M. Forster: Essays and

Recollections Written for His Ninetieth Birthday, 1st January 1969. London:

Edward Morgan, 1969.

 

 

DORA CARRINGTON

 

Biography

 

118.          Gerzina, Gretchen. Carrington: A Life. New York: Norton, 1989.

 

 

 

MEMOIRS

 

119.          Bell, Quentin. Bloomsbury Recalled. New York: Columbia UP, 1995.

 

120.          Bell, Vanessa. Sketches in Pen and Ink. Ed. Lia Giachero. London: Hogarth P,

1997.

 

121.          Garnett, Angelica. Deceived With Kindness: A Bloomsbury Childhood. New

York: Harcourt, 1985.

 

122.          Lee, Hugh, ed. A Cezanne in the Hedge: and Other Memories of Charleston and

            Bloomsbury. Chicago: Chicago UP, 1992.

 

123.          MacWeeney, Alen and Sue Allison. Bloomsbury Reflections. New York: Norton,

1990.

 

124.          Partridge, Frances. Love in Bloomsbury: Memories. Boston: Little, Brown, and

Company, 1981.

 

125.          Stone, Wilfred. “Some Bloomsbury Interviews and Memories.” Twentieth

Century Literature: A Scholarly and Critical Journal 43.2 (1997): 177-

195.

 

 

 

OTHER CORRESPONDENCE

 

126.          Hale, Keith, ed. Friends and Apostles: The Correspondence of Rupert Brooke and

James Strachey, 1905-1914. New Haven, Yale UP, 1998.

 

 

ONLINE SOURCES

 

127.          “Bloomsbury Group.” The Knitting Circle. 24 November 2002

http://www.sbu.ac.uk/stafflag/bloomsbury.html

 

128.          “Charleston, the Home of Vanessa Bell, Duncan Grant, and the Bloomsbury

Group.” 24 November 2002 http://www.charleston.org.uk/

 

129.          Gately, Pat. “JINS 313: Bloomsbury.” Bloomsbury Images. 24 November 2002

<http:www2.Truman.edu/~pgately/>

 

130.          “Web Resources for ENGL 395: The Bloomsbury Group.” 17 October 2002

http://www.cofc.edu/~westmank/spring_00/Bloomsbury_resources.html